## Solving Systems of Non-Linear Equations | Extreme Optimization Numerical Libraries for .NET Professional |

The EquationSystemSolver class is the abstract base class for all classes that solve systems of nonlinear equations. Each algorithm is implemented by a different class, derived from EquationSystemSolver.

EquationSystemSolver inherits from the ManagedIterativeAlgorithm class. All properties and methods of this class are also available.

Newton's method is a generalization of the Newton-Raphson method for solving equations in one variable to the multi-dimensional case. The Jacobian of the system takes the place of the derivative.

Newton's method is implemented by the NewtonRaphsonSystemSolver class

Powell's dogleg method, also called *Powell's hybrid method*, attempts to minimize the sum of the squares
of the function values. It does this using a combination of Newton's method and the steepest descent method. This is
a so-called trust region method. This means that every step moves the current point to within a finite region. This
makes the method more stable than Newton's method.

On the other hand, the fact that the method is, in essence, a specialized minimizer means that the algorithm can get stuck in a local minimum that does not correspond to a solution of the system of equations.

The DoglegSystemSolver class implements the dog leg algorithm. This class uses derivatives when available, and uses an optimized variant using numerical derivatives when they are not. It has one additional property, TrustRegionRadius, which allows you to set the initial trust region radius. The default is 1.

The equations that make up the system of equations can be defined in two ways. Viewed as a set of equations, the
system is a collection of multivariate functions that are each set equal to a real number (usually 0).
The functions must be supplied as an array of Func

1 - *x* = 0

10(*y* - *x*^{2}) = 0

Func<Vector<double>, double>[] rosenbrock = { x => 1 - x[0], x => 10 * (x[1] - x[0] * x[0]) };

A system of equations can also be looked at as a single vector equation,
where a multivariate function returns a vector that is set equal to a vector (usually all 0's).
This function is supplied as one Func

Vector<double> Rosenbrock(Vector<double> x, Vector<double> f) { if (f == null) f = Vector.Create<double>(2); f[0] = 1 - x[0]; f[1] = 10 * (x[1] - x[0] * x[0]); return f; }

The RightHandSide
property is a Vector

Some algorithms require the Jacobian (matrix of partial derivatives) of the system. Each row of the Jacobian
corresponds to the gradient of the corresponding target function. There are two ways to supply this function. The
first is through the JacobianFunction property. This
property is a Func

Matrix<double> RosenbrockJacobian(Vector<double> x, Matrix<double> J) { if (J == null) J = Matrix.Create<double>(2, 2); J[0, 0] = -1; J[0, 1] = 0; J[1, 0] = -20 * x[0]; J[1, 1] = 10; return J; }

Alternatively, the individual gradients can be specified using the
SetGradientFunctions
property. This method takes an array of either Func

Func<Vector<double>, Vector<double>>[] rosenbrockGradients = { x => Vector.Create(-1.0, 0.0), x => Vector.Create(-20.0 * x[0], 10) };

The following code puts this all together. It creates a DogLegSystemSolver and defines the system of equations using the functions defined in earlier examples:

DoglegSystemSolver dogleg = new DoglegSystemSolver(); dogleg.InitialGuess = Vector.Create(0.5, 0.5); dogleg.TargetFunction = Rosenbrock; dogleg.SetGradientFunctions(rosenbrockGradients);

If the functions are of a simple enough form, then automatic differentiation can be used. This completely eliminates the need to define derivatives, gradients, or Jacobians by hand. The code is also very concise:

Algorithms for solving systems of nonlinear equations typically have two criteria that may each signal that a solution has been found.

The ValueTest property
returns a VectorConvergenceTest

The SolutionTest
property returns a VectorConvergenceTest

The VectorConvergenceTest

The following example specifies that the algorithm is to end when the sum of the absolute values of the function values is less than 0.00001. The solution test is not used:

dogleg.ValueTest.Tolerance = 0.00001; dogleg.ValueTest.Norm = VectorConvergenceNorm.SumOfAbsoluteValues; dogleg.SolutionTest.Enabled = false;

You must specify an initial guess for the solution by setting the InitialGuess property to a suitable
Vector

The Solve method does the
actual work of solving the system of equations. When called without parameters, it returns the approximation to the
zero of the target function. When called with a single Vector

The Solve method always returns the best estimate for the solution of the system. Successive calls to the Result property will also return this value, until the next call to Solve. An optional parameter lets you specify the right-hand side of the equation TargetFunction(x) = rightHandSide that is to be solved. You can also set this value through the RightHandSide property.

If the ThrowExceptionOnFailure property is set to true, an exception is thrown if the algorithm has failed to converge to a solution within the desired accuracy. If false, the Solve method returns the best approximation to the zero, regardless of whether it is within the requested tolerance.

The Status property indicates how the algorithm terminated. Its possible values and their meaning are listed below.

Value | Description |
---|---|

NoResult | The algorithm has not been executed. |

Converged | The algorithm ended normally. The desired accuracy has been achieved. |

IterationLimitExceeded | The number of iterations needed to achieve the desired accuracy is greater than MaxIterations. |

EvaluationLimitExceeded | The number of function evaluations needed to achieve the desired accuracy is greater than MaxEvaluations. |

RoundOffError | Round-off prevented the algorithm from achieving the desired accuracy. |

BadFunction | Bad behavior of one or more target functions prevented the algorithm from achieving the desired accuracy. |

Divergent | The algorithm converged to a point that is not a solution of the system. |

ConvergedToFalseSolution | The algorithm converged but the solution that was obtained is not a solution to the system of equations. |

The normal status for successful completion is Converged. Of particular interest in this instance is the value ConvergedToFalseSolution. This status is returned when the algorithm converges, but the solution that was found is not a solution of the system of equations. This can happen when an algorithm that solves the system by minimizing the sum of the squares of the function values converges to a local minimum that does not coincide with the global minimum of the sum of squares.

Several properties provide more information about the algorithm. The IterationsNeeded property returns the number of iterations the algorithm needed to complete. The EvaluationsNeeded property returns the number of times the target functions were evaluated. The convergence tests, ValueTest and SolutionTest, each have an Error property that gives an estimate for the error in the solution.

In the next example, we print a summary of the results of the algorithm:

Console.WriteLine(" Initial guess: {0:F2}", dogleg.InitialGuess); Console.WriteLine(" Status: {0}", dogleg.Status); Console.WriteLine(" Solution: {0}", dogleg.Result); Console.WriteLine(" Estimated error: {0}", dogleg.ValueTest.Error); Console.WriteLine(" # iterations: {0}", dogleg.IterationsNeeded); Console.WriteLine(" # evaluations: {0}", dogleg.EvaluationsNeeded);

J.J. Moré, M.Y. Cosnard, Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Equations", *
ACM Transactions on Mathematical
Software
*, Vol 5, No 1, 1979.

M. J. D. Powell, *A Hybrid Method for Nonlinear Equations.* Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Algebraic
Equations, P. Rabinowitz, editor. Gordon and Breach, 1970.

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