# Variance Tests QuickStart Sample (Visual Basic)

Illustrates how to perform hypothesis tests involving the standard deviation or variance using classes in our .NET statistical library in Visual Basic.

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``````Option Infer On

Imports Extreme.Mathematics
Imports Extreme.Statistics
Imports Extreme.Statistics.Tests

' Demonstrates how to use hypothesis tests for the variance
' of one or two distributions.
Module VarianceTests

Sub Main()
' The license is verified at runtime. We're using
' https://www.extremeoptimization.com/trial-key

' This QuickStart Sample uses the scores obtained by the students
' in two groups of students on a national test.
'
' We want to know if the variance of the scores is greater than
' a specific value. We use the one sample Chi-square test for this
' purpose.

Console.WriteLine("Tests for class 1")

' First we create a NumericalVariable that holds the test results.
Dim group1Results = Vector.Create(Of Double)(
62, 77, 61, 94, 75, 82, 86, 83, 64, 84,
68, 82, 72, 71, 85, 66, 61, 79, 81, 73)

' We can get the mean and standard deviation of the class right away:
Console.WriteLine("Mean for the class: {0:F1}", group1Results.Mean)
Console.WriteLine("Standard deviation: {0:F1}", group1Results.StandardDeviation)

'
' One Sample Chi-square Test
'

Console.WriteLine(Environment.NewLine + "Using chi-square test:")

' We want to know if the variance is larger than 5.
' Therefore, we use a one-tailed chi-square test:
Dim chiSquareTest As OneSampleChiSquareTest =
New OneSampleChiSquareTest(group1Results, 5, HypothesisType.OneTailedUpper)

' We can obtan the value of the test statistic through the Statistic property,
' and the corresponding P-value through the Probability property:
Console.WriteLine("Test statistic: {0:F4}", chiSquareTest.Statistic)
Console.WriteLine("P-value:        {0:F4}", chiSquareTest.PValue)

' The significance level is the default value of 0.05:
Console.WriteLine("Significance level:     {0:F2}",
chiSquareTest.SignificanceLevel)
' We can now print the test results:
Console.WriteLine("Reject null hypothesis? {0}",
If(chiSquareTest.Reject(), "yes", "no"))
' We can get a confidence interval for the current significance level:
Dim varianceInterval As Interval = chiSquareTest.GetConfidenceInterval()
Console.WriteLine("95% Confidence interval for the variance: {0:F1} - {1:F1}",
varianceInterval.LowerBound, varianceInterval.UpperBound)

' We can get the same results for the 0.01 significance level by explicitly
' passing the significance level as a parameter to these methods:
Console.WriteLine("Significance level:     {0:F2}", 0.01)
Console.WriteLine("Reject null hypothesis? {0}",
If(chiSquareTest.Reject(0.01), "yes", "no"))

' The GetConfidenceInterval method needs the confidence level, which equals
' 1 - the significance level:
varianceInterval = chiSquareTest.GetConfidenceInterval(0.99)
Console.WriteLine("99% Confidence interval for the variance: {0:F1} - {1:F1}",
varianceInterval.LowerBound, varianceInterval.UpperBound)

'
' Two sample F-test
'

Console.WriteLine(Environment.NewLine + "Using F-test:")
' We want to compare the scores of the first group to the scores
' of a second group from another school. We want to verify that the
' variances of the scores from the two schools are equal. Once again,
' we start by creating a NumericalVariable, this time containing
' the scores for the second group:
Dim group2Results = Vector.Create(Of Double)(
61, 80, 98, 90, 94, 65, 79, 75, 74, 86,
76, 85, 78, 72, 76, 79, 65, 92, 76, 80)

' To compare the variances of the two groups, we need the two sample
' F test, implemented by the FTest class:
Dim fTest As FTest = New FTest(group1Results, group2Results)
' We can obtan the value of the test statistic through the Statistic property,
' and the corresponding P-value through the Probability property:
Console.WriteLine("Test statistic: {0:F4}", fTest.Statistic)
Console.WriteLine("P-value:        {0:F4}", fTest.PValue)

' The significance level is the default value of 0.05:
Console.WriteLine("Significance level:     {0:F2}",
fTest.SignificanceLevel)
' We can now print the test results:
Console.WriteLine("Reject null hypothesis? {0}",
If(fTest.Reject(), "yes", "no"))

Console.Write("Press any key to exit.")